Naguib Mahfouz , Nobel Prize in Literature 1988 Martin Luther King, Nobel Peace Prize 1964
 
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The Nobel Prize

Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso), Nobel Peace Prize 1989
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Paul Crutzen ,  Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
Aung San Suu Kyi, Nobel Peace Prize 1991
Kofi Annan, Nobel Peace Prize 2001
Guglielmo Marconi, Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

The Prize Winners 2004

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Aaron CiechanoverThe Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Avram HershkoThe Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Irwin Rose
Aaron Ciechanover
Avram Hershko
Irwin Rose
The Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize: Wangari Maathai
Wangari Maathai
The Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004: Elfriede Jelinek
Elfriede Jelinek
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Richard AxelThe Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Linda B. Buck
Richard Axel
Linda B. Buck
The Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004: David J. GrossThe Nobel Prize in Physics 2004 H. David PolitzerThe Nobel Prize in Physics 2004: Frank Wilczek
David J. Gross
H. David Politzer
Frank Wilczek
The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel: Finn E. Kydland The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel: Edward C. Prescott
Finn E. Kydland
Edward C. Prescott

 

Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (pronounced no-BELL) is awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. It is generally regarded as the supreme commendation in the world today. The prizes were instituted by the final will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish industrialist, and the inventor of dynamite. He signed his will at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on November 27, 1895. He was shocked to see how his invention was used for destructive purposes and wanted the prizes to be awarded to those who served mankind well.

The first ceremony to award the Nobel Prizes in literature, physics, chemistry, and medicine was held at the Old Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm in 1901; since 1902, the prizes have been formally awarded by the King of Sweden. King Oscar II did not initially approve of awarding grand national prizes to foreigners, but is said to have changed his mind after realizing the publicity value of the prizes for the country.

The Prizes are awarded at a formal ceremony held annually on December 10, the date that Alfred Nobel passed away. However, the names of the laureates are typically announced in October by the different committees and institutions that serve as selection boards for the prizes.

A large monetary award is included with the Nobel Prizes, currently about 10 million Swedish Kronor (slightly more than one million Euros). This was originally intended to allow laureates to continue working or researching without the pressures of raising money. (In actual fact, many prize winners have retired before winning, and many Literature winners have been silenced by it, even if younger.)

 

The Will of Alfred Nobel

"The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my executors, shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses. The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiology or medical works by the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm, and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting. It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be Scandinavian or not."

Paris, 27 November, 1895

Alfred Bernhard Nobel

External links

The Nobel Prize
The Nobel Foundation

 

Pearl S. Buck, Nobel Prize in Literature 1938
Marie Curie, Nobel Prize in Physics 1903, in Chemistry 1911
Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901
Albert Einstein , Nobel Prize in Physics 1921
Hermann Hesse, Nobel Prize in Literature 1946
Nikolaas Tinbergen, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Svante August Arrhenius , Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903
Gao Xingjian, Nobel Prize in Literature 2000
Günter Grass, Nobel Prize in Literature 1999
Mother Teresa, Nobel Peace Prize 1979
Emil Adolf von Behring , Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
Frederick Sanger , Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958 and 1980
Lars Olof Jonathan Söderblom, Nobel Peace Prize 1930
Trygve Magnus Haavelmo, Nobel Prize in Economics 1989
Giulio Natta, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963
Niels Bohr, Nobel Prize in Physics 1922
Eisaku Sato, Nobel Peace Prize 1974
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov , Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904
Gabriela Mistral, Nobel Prize in Literature 1945
Jody Williams, Nobel Peace Prize 1997
Jean Henri Dunant, Nobel Peace Prize 1901 George Catlett Marshall , Nobel Peace Prize 1953
Robert William Fogel, Nobel Prize in Economics 1993 Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Bertha von Suttner , Nobel Peace Prize 1905 Rabindranath Tagore, Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Martin Luther King, Nobel Peace Prize 1964 Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986
Linda B. Buck , Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004 August Simon von Euler-Chelpin , Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929  
Maria Goeppert-Mayer , Nobel Prize in Physics 1963 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Nobel Prize in Physics 1901    
       
       
 

 


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